PRRSV is a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in animals and respiratory disease that occurs in pigs. This is a very significant disease that has disastrous economic effects on the U.S. swine production, which is why so many people are worried about how to eliminate PRRSV.
This virus can occur in pigs of all ages. While it is more obvious when sows are affected by reproductive failure or impairment, it can also happen to boars as well. Respiratory syndrome is most often seen in younger pigs but can occur in breeding stock and finishing pigs. While only in a few countries in the 1980s, PRRS is now a worldwide problem. In the U.S., it is both endemic and epidemic.
The first outbreak in the US was in 1987-88 but a few years later, it had been reported in Europe, Canada, and other countries. This disease was first called a syndrome and was often confused with other diseases. While there has been a lot of research completed on the PRRS virus in the past two decades, there is still a lot of confusion regarding controlling the disease. This disease affects producers and entire systems have been designed to help eliminate or control the spread of the PRRS virus.
This virus is an RNA virus. The U.S. virus is distinct from the European isolate while they are still related. While the virus can be easily inactivated with disinfectant, phenol, and formaldehyde, it is only a little resistant to regular environmental degradation.
This virus is able to persist for a very long time in carrier pigs. More than 200 days is not uncommon but most pigs will become immune around two months and stop shedding the virus. Shedding is the most common form of infection in a population as the virus is very infectious. It is present in semen, urine, feces, and mammary secretions.
Sows can deliver piglets that are already infected and boars can infect dams while breeding. This makes it very important for researchers to learn more about how to stop PRRS virus transmission.
Once transmission of the virus has occurred, it will infect the body and cause pneumonia while making the lungs more susceptible to other pathogens. It can cross the placenta in late gestation and can kill a fetus. Abortions are common and recovered sows can be re-infected.
Not all pigs infected with PRRS display clinical signs. The signs will vary depending on the age of the pig, other diseases, herd size, the age of the infection, and the virulence of the PRRS virus. Boars, sows, and gilts all can experience anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, fever, and depression. Reproductive problems are a common sign and piglet mortality is high.
Younger and finishing pigs will experience depression, fever, lethargy, stunted growth, and depression. Some common first symptoms to watch for are lethargy, sneezing, and fever. Post-weaning mortality is common, especially when the strain is highly virulent and when it causes additional infections.
An infection results in lesions in the lymph nodes and lungs. The lymph nodes will be swollen and cystic.
Porcine Syndrome is very dangerous and can quickly kill a group of pigs. It’s best to detect this virus during the early stages. Aborted piglets can be tested to rule out infections and fresh tissue can also be used to detect PRRS.
There’s no one way to control PRRS because the virus varies so much and is transmitted so easily. Smaller herds can be controlled while larger ones are much more difficult to manage. The goal is often to stabilize the infection by creating immunity in the breeding animals. This will prevent reproductive failure and makes it less likely for piglets to be born with the virus.
Boars need to be quarantined when introduced to a herd and offspring and sows need to be treated or removed from the herd. Some vaccines are available but they are not consistently effective. Cleaning the facilities can be useful as well.
It is very difficult to kill PRRS virus , which is why other treatment options are important. Using an Odorox/Pyure Hydroxyl Generator air machine in the space can help to eliminate bacteria, odor, and viruses in the air and on surfaces. This is a great way to control the spread of PRRS and keep your herd healthy.
Odorox hydroxyl technology destroys 99.9% of germs, bacteria, mold, mildew, voc's and viruses in the air and on porous and non-porous surfaces which can cause illness and infections. MDU/RX FDA approved and safe to use in spaces occupied by people, pets, and plants.